Regensburg 1480 c. - 1538
Altdorfer spent most of his life in Regensburg, becoming a citizen in 1505 and in later years serving as official architect of the city and a member of its inner council. He was the guiding spirit of the Danube school of painting. With the Regensburg Landscape (c. 1522–25) and other works, Altdorfer painted the first pure landscapes—i.e., landscape scenes containing no human figures whatsoever—since antiquity. His favourite subject was the leafy and impenetrable forests of Germany and Austria. He was also among the first to depict sunset lighting and picturesque ruins in twilight. Several of his altar panels, are night scenes in which he exploited the possibilities of torch light, star light, or twilight with unusual brilliance. Altdorfer’s masterpiece, the Battle of Alexander at Issus (1529; Alte Pinakothek, Munich), is both a battle scene of incredible detail and a highly dramatic and expressive landscape. The fantastic element that pervaded Altdorfer’s paintings was also prominent in his drawings, most of which were done in black with white highlights on brown or blue-gray paper. His engravings and woodcuts, usually miniatures, are distinguished by their playful inventiveness. Late in his career he used the new medium of etching to produce a series of landscapes.
Firenze 1585 - 1644
Bilivert, although considered for a long time with a flemish- florentine or french-florentine nationality, was borne in Florence. His father Jacques Bijlevelt , a famous goldsmith, worked for the Medici’s family at the end of the sixteen century; he started his career in Siena in Alessandro Casolani’s worshop; later he moved to Florence where, thanks the interest of the Duke Ferdinando de Medici, he joined Cigoli’s studio. After a short stay in Rome with his master Cigoli, he moved back to Florence and from 1611 to 1621, thanks to Cosimo 1st’ interest, became the official designer in the Pietre dure’s atelier. He received inportant public and private commissions and built up an important workshop where talented artists such as Fidani, Furini, Coccapani and Silvestrini worked. Among his most important paintings we remind the canvas of “the Archangel rejects Tobia’s gifts” in 1612 conserved in the Palatina’s Gallery, the “Recovery of the real Cross by saint Helen”, in Santa Croce’s church and the painting “Susanna and the elders” commissioned by Carlo de’ Medici. After 1631 Blivert preferred the Old Testament’s themes: this change of taste probably is due to his stay in Rome.
Udine 1510-Venezia 1561
Although born in Venice Battista Franco went to Rome where he was working by 1530, studying Michelangelo and the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel. The body corpus of etchings by Battista Franco is very large and related in a style to his drawings.
Mühlbrecht 1558 – Haarlem 1617
Goltzius was the greatest exponent of Dutch Mannerism, renowned in the Netherlands and elsewhere for his technical skill and virtuosity. He was one of the last great masters of copperplate engraving before this printing method took second place to the more flexible and personal etching technique in the seventeenth century. After being trained as a copperplate engraver, Goltzius worked for renowned publishers of prints in Antwerp before he founded his own publishing house in Haarlem in 1582. Goltzius was in close contact with the most important Dutch artists and particularly with the chief art theorist of his day, Karel van Mander; he got also in touch with Bartholomeus Spranger, the influential court painter of the Holy Roman Emperor in Prague. Goltzius developed a copperplate technique suited to translate Spranger’s elegant, affected, and figure-oriented mannerism into the medium of printing. His graphic means consist in virtuoso, elaborately swelling and subsiding lines and flexible hatchings that emphasize the plasticity of forms and unfold a calligraphic quality of their own. Though Goltzius gave up Spranger’s style after only a few years, his pupil Jan Harmensz. Muller continued to work in this elegant mannerist mode. Goltzius, who always experimented with new techniques and forms like with the chiaroscuro woodcut, came to prefer a calmer and clearer language of forms informed by Antiquity and the Italian Renaissance under the influence of a tour through Italy in 1590 and 1591. Around 1600, he entrusted his stepson Jacob Matham with the management of his publishing house, gave up his work as a printmaker, and committed himself to painting until his death.
Verona 1528 - 1590
Bernardino India was born and mainly active in Verona. He is said to have trained with Domenico Riccio. He collaborated with Michele Sanmicheli in the Canossa palace and with Pellegrini in the chapel in San Bernardino of Verona. He also collaborated with Felice Brusasorci, Domenico's son in frescoes at Palazzo Fiorio Della Seta. He decorated Palladian villas such as Villa Pojana, Villa Foscari (also known as La Malcontenta) where Giovanni Battista Zelotti also worked, and the Palazzo Thiene in Vicenza. Orlando Flacco completed his most extensive work for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in Verona.
Venezia 1548 – 1628
Palma il Giovane is one of the most important artists of the Venetian school around 1600. He formed an individual mannerist style wich approached Tintoretto’s painting. The artists worked together in the cycle representing scenes from the life of St. Susanna in San Marco in Venice. Palma was also influenced by the mannerist art of central Italy, known from his stay in Urbino -1564-1567 at the service of Duke Guidobaldo. In 1567 the Duke of Urbino recognized Palma’s talents sending him to Rome, where he remained until 1573 ca. He returned to Venice, the first major commission arrived after 1577 in the Doge’s Palace: three scenes in its Grand Council Hall. Palma, born in the Venetian family of artists, was the nephew of the painter Palma il Vecchio and the son of Antonio Negretti, a minor painter pupil of Bonifafazio de’ Pitati, who inherited his shop . After Tintoretto’s death in 1594, Palma became Venice’s leading artist.
Bologna active 1511-1515 – Bologna 1551
Malvasia Referred to Pupini as a pupil of Francia, he is first documented as receiving a joint commission with Bagnacavallo to paint the chapel of the high altar in S. Maria delle Grazie in Faenza (1511). Many of the works ascribed to him have been lost, but a large number of drawings survive. He visited Rome where he admired Raphael and Polidoro da Caravaggio.Pupini executed frescoes with Girolamo da Cotignola in the sacristy of. S. Michele in Bosco. In 1537 he worked with the Ferrarese artist in the Villa Belriguardo for Ercole d’Este.
Parma 1523 – Ferrara 1567
Vico was an engraver and numismatist who settled in Rome when he was young. There he worked for publishers and printers, such as A. Barlacchi and A. Salamanca, and was formed mainly through the study of the engravings by M. Raimondi and his school. After a stay in Florence (1545) he settled in Venice and then moved, from 1563, to the court of Alfonso II in Ferrara. Vico did about five hundred engravings: portraits, series of ancient vessels, gems and cameos, and prints after works by Raffaello, Michelangelo and Salviati. He also produced the series Immagini delle donne auguste (taken from Roman medals). His renown of numismatist is confirmed by his works Immagini con tutti i riversi trovati et le vite degli imperatori (1548); Discorsi sopra le medaglie degli antichi (1555); Commentari alle antiche medaglie degli imperatori romani (1560).